关于楷博 在线课程

考前干货 | 楷博老师带你直击ACCA P2高频考点

考前干货 | 楷博老师带你直击ACCA P2高频考点

您现在的位置:楷博财经首页>国际证书培训>证书资讯>考前冲刺

Oscar

分享老师简介

Oscar

-特许公认会计师公会会员ACCA

-国际注册会计师协会会员(CAT

-楷博财经全职老师。


又一枚颜值和才华同时在线,各项技能满点”的楷博老师,在健身房里举得动杠铃,在讲台上讲得来精彩ACCA课;在穿衣品味上跟得上时尚潮流,在财经领域做得来严谨学术。擅于把各种艰涩的专业知识转化为通俗易懂的语言,让同学们轻松吸收。反正,上过他课的同学们的“卖家(评)秀(价)”是这样的——“如果满分100分,我给奥斯卡老师120分!



IFRS 13 – fair value measurement


Fair value measurement在近年的P2考试中,应该是一个绝对的高频考点,考官很热衷于对此知识点的测试。


    IFRS 13 does not apply to:

  🔵 Share-based payment transactions within the scope of IFRS 2 Share –based payment

  🔵 Leasing transactions within the scope of IAS 17 (IFRS 16) lease

  🔵 Measurement that are similar to fair value but which are not fair value

  在IFRS 13中明确规定了fair value的内容不适用于以上内容,在相应的准则中,有对特定的fair value有做更详细的规定。


     Fair value measurement and IFRS

  The fair value of an asset or a liability may be required to be measured in a variety of circumstances as follows:

  🔷Fair value upon initial recognition arises when a reporting standard requires fair value to be measured upon initial recognition

  ✔ For example: IFRS 9 – Financial instrument indicates that for initial recognition, a financial asset and a financial should be measured at its fair value.

  🔷 Fair value on a recurring basis arises when a reporting standard requires fair value to be measured on an ongoing basis.

  ✔ Examples of this include IAS 40 investment property, or IFRS 9 Financial instruments, or IAS 41 Agriculture

  🔷Fair value on a non-recurring basis arises when a reporting standard requires fair value to be measured at fair value only in certain specified circumstances.

  ✔ For example: IFRS 5 requires that assets classified as held for sale are measured at fair value less costs to sell.

   综上所述:fair value的运用很广,涉及部分资产的初始计量,常规期末计量以及在特定情况下计量。


    The definition of fair value:  

  The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

  🔷The asset or liability to be measured may be an individual asset or liability, or a group of assets and liabilities, depending upon what is required to be measured. 此处的资产和负债可以是单独的某一个特定资产或负债,也可以是一个cash-generating-unit,具体取决与我们需要去计量的对象本身。


🔷 The fair value of a non-financial asset should be best on its highest best use.对于非金融类产品在考虑公允价值估量的时候,需要用到的是在其最大化利益条件的用途下的价值。


🔷The measurement should reflect the price at which an ordinary transaction between willing market participants would take place under current market conditions. It should not be a distress transaction. 在考虑交易价格的时候,我们应该用到的交易价格是在常规的交易环境下面的交易价格。非常规环境比如说:高通货膨胀;市场信息不对称;关联方交易等。


🔷 The value of the asset or liability should take into account the assumptions of market participants, who will generally want to maximize their own best interest.

  考前干货 楷博老师带你直击ACCA P2高频考点

✔The valuation must therefore reflect the characteristics of the asset or liability (age, condition, location, and restrictions on use or sale) that are relevant to market participants.在估值的过程中,我们以交易方期望实现最大经济利益为前提,同时需要考虑到各方面综合因素,如资产使用寿命,状况,地里位置和其他限制性条件等,这些都会影响到我们估值。


🔷The entity must determine the market in which an ordinary transaction would take place

✔This will normally be the principal market, which is the market in which the transaction would normally take place

✔In the absence of a principal market, the most advantageous market should be used


另外我们在确定交易价值的时候还要考虑一个问题,就是在不同市场中,交易价格也会有差异。我们优先考虑该资产或负债在主要交易市场中的交易价格,当我们无法确定其主要交易市场的时候,我们考虑使用在最优市场中的交易价格。


🔷Fair value is not adjusted for transaction cost because these are specific to the transaction and not a characteristic of the asset or liability

🔷Transaction costs should, however, be taken into consideration if the entity needs to determine the most advantageous markets for its assets or liabilities

🔷Transaction costs do not include transport costs.

在考虑公允价值的时候,交易成本不能被调整到资产或负债的公允价值中。但是当我们在确定最优市场的时候,我们要将transaction cost考虑进去。运输费用则不应该被包括进transaction cost中,因为我们已经在将location这个要素考虑进去。



    Fair value hierarchy  


IFRS 13 states that an entity should maximize the use of observable inputs when determine fair value.

🔷Level 1 inputs comprise quoted price in active markets for identical assets and liabilities at the measurement date


🔷 This is regarded as providing the most reliable evidence of fair value and is likely to be used without the adjustment

大多数的情况下,我们对资产和负债进行估值的时候,会选择使用该资产或负债在一个活跃市场上的定价来作为其公允价值。在这种情况下,公允价值也是最可靠的计量,一般情况下也无需做任何调整。


🔷 Level 2 inputs are observable inputs, other than those included within level 1 above, which are observable directly or indirectly.

🔷 This may include quoted prices for similar asset or liabilities in active markets, or prices for prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in inactive markets. Typically, they are likely to require some degree of adjustment to arrive at a fair value measurement.


🔷 An adjustment to a level 2 input that is significantly to the entire measurement might result in a fair value measurement categorized within level 3 of the fair value hierarchy.


有的时候,我们无法直接从活跃市场上获得相关资产或负债的交易价格(如研发出的新产品);或者有一些资产和负债没有活跃市场,只在一些特定的人群或市场上交易, 我们对以上类型的资产和负债进行公允价值计量的时候我们可以参照以活跃市场上类似资产或负债的交易价格或者非活跃市场上的交易价格的基础上,加以适当调整来确认其公允价值。


For example

An agricultural company has breed new varieties of rice which has a much higher quality than those sold in the current market. These new varieties of rice would be harvested 2 months later after the reporting date.  

In accordance with IAS 41:

Rice belongs to the biological asset, at the reporting date these should be measured at fair value less cost to sell.

However, as this is a new product with much higher quality compared to the current market’s products, which means currently, this kindle of rice does not have an active market. When considering the fair value, it can be based on the current market’s rice’s quoted price (quoted price for similar asset in an active market) with some necessary adjustments made.


🔷 Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for an asset or liability, based upon the best estimation available, including information that may be reasonably available relating to market participants.


当我们无法从一个活跃市场上找到该产品或者类似产品时,我们可以根据市场看情况,结合相关信息来预估此资产或者债务的公允价值。



文末贴心彩蛋

1.想预约本周F7/P4直播课的同学,可以扫描下方二维码提前占座哦


ACCA F7直播
(11月22日F7直播预约占座  请扫描上方二维码)


ACCA P4直播
(11月23日P4直播预约占座  请扫描上方二维码)





 推荐阅读:  



考前冲刺 | 2017ACCA复习技巧及P1 12月考试重点指南

智聊ACCA P5——Balanced Scorecard 与经济政策博弈下的财富管理

“PASS”真经| ACCA F6考前技巧总结及时间分配建议




ACCA-特许公认会计师公会

The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants

国际财会界的通行证

了解更多

楷博财经-国内领先的国际教育机构