IFRS 13 – fair value measurement
Fair value measurement在近年的P2考试中，应该是一个绝对的高频考点，考官很热衷于对此知识点的测试。
IFRS 13 does not apply to：
🔵 Share-based payment transactions within the scope of IFRS 2 Share –based payment
🔵 Leasing transactions within the scope of IAS 17 (IFRS 16) lease
🔵 Measurement that are similar to fair value but which are not fair value
在IFRS 13中明确规定了fair value的内容不适用于以上内容，在相应的准则中，有对特定的fair value有做更详细的规定。
Fair value measurement and IFRS
The fair value of an asset or a liability may be required to be measured in a variety of circumstances as follows:
🔷Fair value upon initial recognition arises when a reporting standard requires fair value to be measured upon initial recognition
✔ For example: IFRS 9 – Financial instrument indicates that for initial recognition, a financial asset and a financial should be measured at its fair value.
🔷 Fair value on a recurring basis arises when a reporting standard requires fair value to be measured on an ongoing basis.
✔ Examples of this include IAS 40 investment property, or IFRS 9 Financial instruments, or IAS 41 Agriculture
🔷Fair value on a non-recurring basis arises when a reporting standard requires fair value to be measured at fair value only in certain specified circumstances.
✔ For example: IFRS 5 requires that assets classified as held for sale are measured at fair value less costs to sell.
The definition of fair value:
The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
🔷The asset or liability to be measured may be an individual asset or liability, or a group of assets and liabilities, depending upon what is required to be measured. 此处的资产和负债可以是单独的某一个特定资产或负债，也可以是一个cash-generating-unit，具体取决与我们需要去计量的对象本身。
🔷 The fair value of a non-financial asset should be best on its highest best use.对于非金融类产品在考虑公允价值估量的时候，需要用到的是在其最大化利益条件的用途下的价值。
🔷The measurement should reflect the price at which an ordinary transaction between willing market participants would take place under current market conditions. It should not be a distress transaction. 在考虑交易价格的时候，我们应该用到的交易价格是在常规的交易环境下面的交易价格。非常规环境比如说：高通货膨胀;市场信息不对称;关联方交易等。
🔷 The value of the asset or liability should take into account the assumptions of market participants, who will generally want to maximize their own best interest.
✔The valuation must therefore reflect the characteristics of the asset or liability (age, condition, location, and restrictions on use or sale) that are relevant to market participants.在估值的过程中，我们以交易方期望实现最大经济利益为前提，同时需要考虑到各方面综合因素，如资产使用寿命，状况，地里位置和其他限制性条件等，这些都会影响到我们估值。
🔷The entity must determine the market in which an ordinary transaction would take place
✔This will normally be the principal market, which is the market in which the transaction would normally take place
✔In the absence of a principal market, the most advantageous market should be used
🔷Fair value is not adjusted for transaction cost because these are specific to the transaction and not a characteristic of the asset or liability
🔷Transaction costs should, however, be taken into consideration if the entity needs to determine the most advantageous markets for its assets or liabilities
🔷Transaction costs do not include transport costs.
在考虑公允价值的时候，交易成本不能被调整到资产或负债的公允价值中。但是当我们在确定最优市场的时候，我们要将transaction cost考虑进去。运输费用则不应该被包括进transaction cost中，因为我们已经在将location这个要素考虑进去。
Fair value hierarchy
IFRS 13 states that an entity should maximize the use of observable inputs when determine fair value.
🔷Level 1 inputs comprise quoted price in active markets for identical assets and liabilities at the measurement date
🔷 This is regarded as providing the most reliable evidence of fair value and is likely to be used without the adjustment
🔷 Level 2 inputs are observable inputs, other than those included within level 1 above, which are observable directly or indirectly.
🔷 This may include quoted prices for similar asset or liabilities in active markets, or prices for prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in inactive markets. Typically, they are likely to require some degree of adjustment to arrive at a fair value measurement.
🔷 An adjustment to a level 2 input that is significantly to the entire measurement might result in a fair value measurement categorized within level 3 of the fair value hierarchy.
An agricultural company has breed new varieties of rice which has a much higher quality than those sold in the current market. These new varieties of rice would be harvested 2 months later after the reporting date.
In accordance with IAS 41:
Rice belongs to the biological asset, at the reporting date these should be measured at fair value less cost to sell.
However, as this is a new product with much higher quality compared to the current market’s products, which means currently, this kindle of rice does not have an active market. When considering the fair value, it can be based on the current market’s rice’s quoted price (quoted price for similar asset in an active market) with some necessary adjustments made.
🔷 Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for an asset or liability, based upon the best estimation available, including information that may be reasonably available relating to market participants.
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